区别一般过去时和现在完成进行时

分类:英语作业 添加时间:2014-12-10

题目:

区别一般过去时和现在完成进行时

解答:

一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态.常和表示过去的时间状语连用.如:last year, yesterday.
一般过去时由动词的过去式表示,动词be有was, were两个过去式,was用于第一、三人称单数,were用于其他情况.在构成否定及疑问句时,一般都借助助动词did, 动词be有其独特的疑问及否定形式(基本上和一般现在时一致).
一般过去时的用法
1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态.
时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等.
Where did you go just now?
2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作.
When I was a child, I often played football in the street.
Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome.
3)句型:
It is time for sb. to do sth "到……时间了" "该……了"
It is time sb. did sth. "时间已迟了" "早该……了"
It is time for you to go to bed. 你该睡觉了.
It is time you went to bed. 你早该睡觉了.
would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'
I'd rather you came tomorrow.
4) wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等.
I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些.
比较:
一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在.
Christine was an invalid all her life.
(含义:她已不在人间.)
Christine has been an invalid all her life.
(含义:她现在还活着)
Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years.
(含义:达比太太已不再住在肯塔基州.)
Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years.
( 含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)
注意: 用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气.
1)动词want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等.
Did you want anything else?
I wondered if you could help me.
2)情态动词 could, would.
Could you lend me your bike?
现在完成进行时的谓语动词构成
I/ we/ you/ they have been working
he/ she/ it has been working
(一)表示从过去某时开始一直持续到现在的动作,并且还将持续下去.
The Chinese have been making paper for two thousand years.
中国有2000年的造纸历史.(动作还将继续下去)
I have been learning English since three years ago.
自从三年前以来我一直在学英语.(动作还将继续下去)
(二)表示在说话时刻之前刚刚结束的动作.
We have been waiting for you for half an hour.
我们已经等你半个钟头了.(动作不在继续下去)
(三)有些现在完成进行时的句子等同于现在完成时的句子.
They have been living in this city for ten years.
They have lived in this city for ten years.
他们在这个城市已经住了10年了.
I have been working here for five years.
I have worked here for five years.
我在这里已经工作两年了.
(四)大多数现在完成进行时的句子不等同于现在完成时的句子.
I have been writing a book.(动作还将继续下去)
我一直在写一本书.
I have written a book.(动作已经完成)
我已经写了一本书.
They have been building a bridge.
他们一直在造一座桥.
They have built a bridge.
他们造了一座桥.
(五)表示状态的动词不能用于现在完成进行时.
I have known him for years.
我认识他已经好几年了.
* I have been knowing...
这类不能用于现在完成进行时的动词还有:love爱,like喜欢,
hate讨厌,等.
比较过去时与现在完成时
1)过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响.
2)过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用,或无时间状语.
一般过去时的时间状语:
yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, in October, just now, 具体的时间状语
共同的时间状语:
this morning, tonight,this April, now, once,before, already, recently,lately
现在完成时的时间状语
for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till / until, up to now, in past years, always,
不确定的时间状语
3)现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的,如live, teach, learn, work, study, know.
过去时常用的非持续性动词有come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married等.
举例:
I saw this film yesterday.
(强调看的动作发生过了.)
I have seen this film.
(强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了.)
Why did you get up so early?
(强调起床的动作已发生过了.)
Who hasn't handed in his paper?
(强调有卷子,可能为不公平竞争.)
She has returned from Paris.
她已从巴黎回来了.
She returned yesterday.
她是昨天回来了.
He has been in the League for three years.
(在团内的状态可延续)
He has been a League member for three years.
(是团员的状态可持续)
He joined the League three years ago.
( 三年前入团,joined为短暂行为.)
I have finished my homework now.
---Will somebody go and get Dr. White?
---He's already been sent for.
句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如 yesterday, last, week, in 1960)时,不能使用现在完成时,要用过去时.
(错)Tom has written a letter to his parents last night.
(对)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.
过去完成时
1) 概念:表示过去的过去
----|-------|-----|---->其构成是had +过去分词构成.
那时以前 那时 现在
2) 用法
a. 在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句.
She said (that) she had never been to Paris.
b. 状语从句
在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时.
When the police arrived, the thieves had run away.
c. 表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…"
We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.
3) 过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as.
He said that he had learned some English before.
By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself.
Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.
在让我们来比较一下现在完成时和现在完成进行时.在比较这两个时态时,关键在于对现在完成进行时的基本概念是否理解,因为对于现在完成时我们已经有了一个基本的理解了.
现在完成进行时是一兼有现在完成时和现在进行时二者基本特点的时态.由于它有现在完成时的特点,所以它可以表示某一动作对现在产生的结果或影响.由于它有现在进行时的特点,所以它也可以表示某一动作的延续性、临时性、重复性、生动性乃至感情色彩.
现在就现在完成进行时的这些特点和现在完成时作一简单的比较:
(1)现在完成进行时和现在完成时皆可表示动作对现在产生的结果,但前者所表示的结果是直接的,而后者所表示的则是最后的结果.如:
We have been cleaning the classroom.(a)
We have cleaned the classroom.(b)
(a)句可译为“我们打扫教室来着.”其直接结果可能是:我们身上都是灰.(b)句可以译为“我们把教室打扫过了.”其结果是:现在教室很清洁,可以用了.又,(a)句表示教室刚刚打扫过,(b)句则可能表示教室是昨天打扫的.
Be careful! John has been painting the door.(a)
John has painted the door.(b)
(a)句表示约翰刚刚把门油漆过,现在油漆还未干,所以你要小心.(b)句则无此含义,油漆可能已干了.
(2)现在完成进行时有时有延续性,现在完成时往往没有.如:
They have been widening the road.(a)
They have widened the road.(b)
(a)句的意思是他们在加宽马路,但尚未完工.(b)句的意思则是已完工了.有时现在完成时有延续性(如一些属于持续体的动词),但无临时性质.如:
Mr. Smith has been living in London since 1978.(a)
Mr. Smith has lived in London since 1979.(b)
(a)句有“史密斯先生在伦敦久居”的含义,(b)句则没有.
(3)但现在完成进行时并不总是具有临时的性质,如:
My moth! er has been teaching English for twenty years.(a)
My mother has taught English for twenty years.(b)
(a)句在此并无临时性质,但较口语化.(b)句则较为正式.又,(a)句表示动作现在仍在继续.并将延续下去,(b)句的动作是否延续下去,须由上下文决定,但在一般情况下都是延续下去的.
(4)现在完成进行时往往表示动作在重复,现在完成时则常常不带重复性.如:
Have you been meeting her lately?(a)
Have you met her lately?(b)
(a)句有“经常相会”之意,(b)句则没有.(b)句如与often,every day等时间状语连用,当然也表示动作在重复.
(5)现在完成进行时比较生动,有时含有明显的感情色彩,而现在完成时往往只说明一个事实,一种影响或结果,平铺直叙,没有什么感情色彩可言.如:
What have you been doing?(a)
What have you done?(b)
(a)句表示惊异.(b)句只是一个问题.
Have you been waiting long?(a)
Have you waited long?(b)
(a)句较(b)句生动.又,(a)句比较口语化.
I have been wanting to meet you for long.(a)
I have long wanted to meet you.(b)
(a)句比(b)句更亲切,更有礼貌.
Recently Mary has been doing her work regularly.(a)
Recently Mary has done her work regularly.(b)
(a)句显然是在表扬玛丽.(b)只说明一个事实.
下面还有一例,颇为有趣:
Who's been eating my apples?(a)
Who's eaten my apples?(b)
(a)句有强烈的感情色彩,表示愤怒不满,(b)句只是希望回答的一个问题.又,(a)句兼有进行时态,所以有“苹果未被全部吃光”的意思,(b)句是完成时态,说明“苹果一个不剩了”.


剩余:2000

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